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Materials (Basel). 2019 Nov 8;12(22). pii: E3678. doi: 10.3390/ma12223678.

Morphological and Spectroscopic Study of an Apatite Layer Induced by Fast-Set Versus Regular-Set EndoSequence Root Repair Materials.

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Endodontic Department, Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia.
Endodontic Department, Faculty of Dentistry, Cairo University, Cairo 12613, Egypt.
Division of Biomaterials, Restorative Dentistry Department, Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia.
Biomaterials Department, Faculty of Dentistry, Tanta University, Tanta 31512, Egypt.
UCL Eastman Dental Institute, Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Division, 256 Gray's Inn Road, London WC1X 8LD, UK.


This study aimed to evaluate the morphology and chemistry of an apatite layer induced by fast-set versus regular-set EndoSequence root repair materials using spectroscopic analysis. Holes of a 4 mm diameter were created in the root canal dentin, which were filled with the test material. Fetal calf serum was used as the incubation medium, and the samples incubated in deionized water were used as controls. The material-surface and material-dentin interfaces were analyzed after 28 days using Raman and infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray, and X-ray diffraction. After incubation in fetal calf serum, both materials formed a uniform layer of calcium phosphate precipitate on their surfaces, with the dentinal interface. This precipitated layer was a combination of hydroxyapatite and calcite or aragonite, and had a high mineral maturity with the regular-set paste. However, its crystallinity index was high with the fast-set putty. Typically, both consistencies (putty and paste) of root repair material have an apatite formation ability when they are incubated in fetal calf serum. This property could be beneficial in improving their sealing ability for root canal dentin.


Ca/P and CO3/PO4 ratios; apatite formation; bioactivity; root repair; spectroscopy analysis

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