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Toxins (Basel). 2019 Feb 27;11(3). pii: E133. doi: 10.3390/toxins11030133.

Exploring Secondary Metabolite Profiles of Stachybotrys spp. by LC-MS/MS.

Author information

1
Institute of Food Chemistry, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, 48149 Münster, Germany. a_jage01@uni-muenster.de.
2
Institute of Food Chemistry, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, 48149 Münster, Germany. v_lind05@uni-muenster.de.
3
Chair of Food Safety, Veterinary Faculty, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, 85764 Oberschleißheim, Germany. ulrich@ls.vetmed.uni-muenchen.de.
4
Chair of Food Safety, Veterinary Faculty, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, 85764 Oberschleißheim, Germany. Christoph.Gottschalk@ls.vetmed.uni-muenchen.de.
5
Institute of Food Chemistry, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, 48149 Münster, Germany. cramerb@uni-muenster.de.
6
Institute of Food Chemistry, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, 48149 Münster, Germany. fhueb_01@uni-muenster.de.
7
Chair of Food Safety, Veterinary Faculty, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, 85764 Oberschleißheim, Germany. m.gareis@ls.vetmed.uni-muenchen.de.
8
Institute of Food Chemistry, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, 48149 Münster, Germany. humpf@wwu.de.

Abstract

The genus Stachybotrys produces a broad diversity of secondary metabolites, including macrocyclic trichothecenes, atranones, and phenylspirodrimanes. Although the class of the phenylspirodrimanes is the major one and consists of a multitude of metabolites bearing various structural modifications, few investigations have been carried out. Thus, the presented study deals with the quantitative determination of several secondary metabolites produced by distinct Stachybotrys species for comparison of their metabolite profiles. For that purpose, 15 of the primarily produced secondary metabolites were isolated from fungal cultures and structurally characterized in order to be used as analytical standards for the development of an LC-MS/MS multimethod. The developed method was applied to the analysis of micro-scale extracts from 5 different Stachybotrys strains, which were cultured on different media. In that process, spontaneous dialdehyde/lactone isomerization was observed for some of the isolated secondary metabolites, and novel stachybotrychromenes were quantitatively investigated for the first time. The metabolite profiles of Stachybotrys species are considerably influenced by time of growth and substrate availability, as well as the individual biosynthetic potential of the respective species. Regarding the reported adverse effects associated with Stachybotrys growth in building environments, combinatory effects of the investigated secondary metabolites should be addressed and the role of the phenylspirodrimanes re-evaluated in future research.

KEYWORDS:

LC-MS/MS; Stachybotrys spp.; biosynthetic production; metabolite profiles; phenylspirodrimanes; satratoxins; stachybotrychromenes

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