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Membranes (Basel). 2018 Dec 20;9(1). pii: E1. doi: 10.3390/membranes9010001.

Comparative Analysis of Dry and Wet Porometry Methods for Characterization of Regular and Cross-Linked Virus Removal Filter Papers.

Author information

1
Division for Nanotechnology and Functional Materials, Department for Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, Box 534, SE-751 21 Uppsala, Sweden. simon.gustafsson@angstrom.uu.se.
2
Charles River Biopharmaceutical Services, Gottfried Hagen Str. 20, 51105 Köln, Germany. frank@westermann.co.
3
Charles River Biopharmaceutical Services, Gottfried Hagen Str. 20, 51105 Köln, Germany. tobias.hanrieder@crl.com.
4
Charles River Biopharmaceutical Services, Gottfried Hagen Str. 20, 51105 Köln, Germany. laura.jung@crl.com.
5
Charles River Biopharmaceutical Services, Gottfried Hagen Str. 20, 51105 Köln, Germany. horst.ruppach@crl.com.
6
Division for Nanotechnology and Functional Materials, Department for Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, Box 534, SE-751 21 Uppsala, Sweden. albert.mihranyan@angstrom.uu.se.

Abstract

Pore-size distribution (PSD) is the most critical parameter for size-exclusion virus removal filters. Yet, different dry- and wet-state porometry methods yield different pore-size values. The goal of this work is to conduct comparative analysis of nitrogen gas sorption (NGSP), liquid-liquid and cryoporometry with differential scanning calorimetry (CP-DSC) methods with respect to characterization of regular and cross-linked virus removal filter paper based on cellulose nanofibers, i.e. the mille-feuille filter. The filters were further characterized with atomic force and scanning electron microscopy. Finally, the removal of the worst-case model virus, i.e. minute virus of mice (MVM; 20 nm, nonenveloped parvovirus) was evaluated. The results revealed that there is no difference of the obtained PSDs between the wet methods, i.e. DSC and liquid-liquid porometry (LLP), as well as no difference between the regular and cross-linked filters regardless of method. MVM filtration at different trans membrane pressure (TMP) revealed strong dependence of the virus removal capability on applied pressure. It was further observed that cross-linking filters showed enhanced virus removal, especially at lower TMP. In all, the results of this study highlight the complex nature of virus capture in size-exclusion filters.

KEYWORDS:

cryoporometry; gas sorption porometry; liquid-liquid porometry; mille-feuille filter, parvovirus; virus removal filter

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