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Sensors (Basel). 2019 Apr 16;19(8). pii: E1813. doi: 10.3390/s19081813.

A First Implementation of Underwater Communications in Raw Water Using the 433 MHz Frequency Combined with a Bowtie Antenna.

Author information

1
Built Environment and Sustainable Technologies (BEST) Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool L3 3AF, UK. S.P.Ryecroft@2012.ljmu.ac.uk.
2
Built Environment and Sustainable Technologies (BEST) Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool L3 3AF, UK. A.Shaw@ljmu.ac.uk.
3
Built Environment and Sustainable Technologies (BEST) Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool L3 3AF, UK. P.Fergus@ljmu.ac.uk.
4
Built Environment and Sustainable Technologies (BEST) Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool L3 3AF, UK. P.Kot@ljmu.ac.uk.
5
Built Environment and Sustainable Technologies (BEST) Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool L3 3AF, UK. K.S.Hashim@ljmu.ac.uk.
6
United Utilities, Warrington WA5 3LP, UK. Adam.Moody@uuplc.co.uk.
7
United Utilities, Warrington WA5 3LP, UK. Laura.Conroy@uuplc.co.uk.

Abstract

In 2016, there were 317 serious water pollution incidents in the UK, with 78,000 locations where businesses discharge controlled quantities of pollutants into rivers; therefore, continuous monitoring is vital. Since 1998, the environment agency has taken over 50 million water samples for water quality monitoring. The Internet of Things has grown phenomenally in recent years, reaching all aspects of our lives, many of these connected devices use wireless sensor networks to relay data to internet-connected nodes, where data can be processed, analyzed and consumed. However, Underwater wireless communications rely mainly on alternative communication methods such as optical and acoustic, with radio frequencies being an under-exploited method. This research presents real world results conducted in the Leeds and Liverpool Canal for the novel use of the 433 MHz radio frequency combined with a bowtie antenna in underwater communications in raw water, achieving distances of 7 m at 1.2 kbps and 5 m at 25 kbps.

KEYWORDS:

Bowtie Antenna; Sensor Networks; Under Water Wireless Sensor Network; Underwater Communication; Water Pollutants; Water Quality

PMID:
30995733
DOI:
10.3390/s19081813
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