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Saudi J Biol Sci. 2019 May;26(4):860-865. doi: 10.1016/j.sjbs.2017.10.007. Epub 2017 Oct 4.

Assemblage of pollinator communities in four widely isolated nature reserves of southern Punjab, Pakistan.

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Department of Entomology, Muhammad Nawaz Shareef University of Agriculture, Multan, Punjab, Pakistan.
Department of Plant Protection, Ghazi University, Dera Ghazi Khan, Punjab, Pakistan.
Bee Research Chair, Plant Protection Department, College of Food and Agriculture Sciences, King Saud University, PO Box 2460, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.
Department of Entomology, College of Agriculture, Islamia University Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan.
Department of Botany, Hindu College Moradabad, M.J.P. Rohilkhand University, 244001 India.


Pollinators are key components of the global biodiversity, providing vital ecosystem services of pollination to crops and wild plants. Understanding pollinator assemblage and how it changes spatially is important in order to device effective ecosystem management planning. This is the first empirical study to explore pollinator community structure in four widely isolated nature reserves of southern Punjab, Pakistan, i.e., the central agricultural plain (Pirowal Forest), the Indus delta plain (Ghazi Ghat Wetland), hilly mountains (Fort Munro), and a sandy desert (Lal Suhanra Forest). Six assemblage parameters, i.e., abundance, richness, dominance, evenness, Simpson index, and Shannon-Wiener index, were studied over seven consecutive months (February to August 2012). Maximum abundance and richness of the pollinators were recorded at Ghazi Ghat (1354 individuals and 84 species), followed by Pirowal (1331 individuals and 80 species), Lal Suhanra (1197 individuals and 77 species), and Fort Munro (808 individuals and 65 species). The highest values of Simpson and evenness indexes were recorded at Fort Munro, while the Shannon-Wiener and dominance indexes were highest at Ghazi Ghat and Pirowal. Species richness was highest for bees, while it was lowest for flies, yet the latter were the highest in abundance among the four pollinator groups. The current study is a first account of pollinator assemblage structure in four widely isolated forest reserves of Punjab, Pakistan. This will support ecosystem management planning, and opens doors for further research in order to reveal complexities in pollinator assemblage structure especially in relation with plant communities.


Assemblage; Forests; Pakistan; Pollinators; Punjab

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