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Front Plant Sci. 2017 Feb 14;8:179. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2017.00179. eCollection 2017.

Invasion by the Alien Tree Prunus serotina Alters Ecosystem Functions in a Temperate Deciduous Forest.

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Ecology, Evolution and Biodiversity Conservation Section, KU LeuvenLeuven, Belgium; Division Forest, Nature and Landscape, KU LeuvenLeuven, Belgium.
Institut für Geographie und Geoökologie, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie Karlsruhe, Germany.
Office National des Forêts, Fontainebleau and Compiègne France.
Geography, University of Erlangen-Nürnberg Erlangen, Germany.
Ecologie et Dynamique des Systèmes Anthropisés (EDYSAN, FRE 3498 CNRS-UPJV), Université de Picardie Jules Verne Amiens, France.
Department of Biodiversity and Molecular Ecology, Research and Innovation Centre (CRI) - Edmund Mach Foundation Trento, Italy.
Division Forest, Nature and Landscape, KU Leuven Leuven, Belgium.
Unit Remote Sensing and Earth Observation Processes, VITO NV Mol, Belgium.
Central Instrument Facility, Department of Chemistry, Colorado State University Fort Collins, CO, USA.
Ecology, Evolution and Biodiversity Conservation Section, KU Leuven Leuven, Belgium.


Alien invasive species can affect large areas, often with wide-ranging impacts on ecosystem structure, function, and services. Prunus serotina is a widespread invader of European temperate forests, where it tends to form homogeneous stands and limits recruitment of indigenous trees. We hypotesized that invasion by P. serotina would be reflected in the nutrient contents of the native species' leaves and in the respiration of invaded plots as efficient resource uptake and changes in nutrient cycling by P. serotina probably underly its aggressive invasiveness. We combined data from 48 field plots in the forest of Compiègne, France, and data from an experiment using 96 microcosms derived from those field plots. We used general linear models to separate effects of invasion by P. serotina on heterotrophic soil and litter respiration rates and on canopy foliar nutrient content from effects of soil chemical properties, litter quantity, litter species composition, and tree species composition. In invaded stands, average respiration rates were 5.6% higher for soil (without litter) and 32% higher for soil and litter combined. Compared to indigenous tree species, P. serotina exhibited higher foliar N (+24.0%), foliar P (+50.7%), and lower foliar C:N (-22.4%) and N:P (-10.1%) ratios. P. serotina affected foliar nutrient contents of co-occuring indigenous tree species leading to decreased foliar N (-8.7 %) and increased C:N ratio (+9.5%) in Fagus sylvatica, decreased foliar N:P ratio in Carpinus betulus (-13.5%) and F. sylvatica (-11.8%), and increased foliar P in Pinus sylvestris (+12.3%) in invaded vs. uninvaded stands. Our results suggest that P. serotina is changing nitrogen, phosphorus, and carbon cycles to its own advantage, hereby increasing carbon turnover via labile litter, affecting the relative nutrient contents in the overstory leaves, and potentially altering the photosynthetic capacity of the long-lived indigenous broadleaved species. Uncontrolled invasion of European temperate forests by P. serotina may affect the climate change mitigation potential of these forests in the long term, through additive effects on local nutrient cycles.


American black cherry; biogeochemical cycles; biological invasion; canopy foliar nutrients; exotic species; heterotrophic respiration; invasive species; litter

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