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Mar Drugs. 2017 Aug 2;15(8). pii: E243. doi: 10.3390/md15080243.

Molecular Identification of Gambierdiscus and Fukuyoa (Dinophyceae) from Environmental Samples.

Author information

1
Coastal & Freshwater Group, Cawthron Institute, Private Bag 2, 98 Halifax Street East, Nelson 7042, New Zealand. kirsty.smith@cawthron.org.nz.
2
Coastal & Freshwater Group, Cawthron Institute, Private Bag 2, 98 Halifax Street East, Nelson 7042, New Zealand. laura.biessy@cawthron.org.nz.
3
Coastal & Freshwater Group, Cawthron Institute, Private Bag 2, 98 Halifax Street East, Nelson 7042, New Zealand. phoebe.argyle@cawthron.org.nz.
4
School of Biological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, 20 Kirkwood Avenue, Christchurch 8041, New Zealand. phoebe.argyle@cawthron.org.nz.
5
Auckland War Memorial Museum, Private Bag 92018, Victoria Street West, Auckland 1142, New Zealand. ttrnski@aucklandmuseum.com.
6
Ministry of Fisheries, P.O. Box 871, Nuku'alofa, Tongatapu, Tonga. supi64t@gmail.com.
7
Coastal & Freshwater Group, Cawthron Institute, Private Bag 2, 98 Halifax Street East, Nelson 7042, New Zealand. lesley.rhodes@cawthron.org.nz.

Abstract

Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP) is increasing across the Pacific and the distribution of the causative dinoflagellates appears to be expanding. Subtle differences in thecal plate morphology are used to distinguish dinoflagellate species, which are difficult to determine using light microscopy. For these reasons we sought to develop a Quantitative PCR assay that would detect all species from both Gambierdiscus and Fukuyoa genera in order to rapidly screen environmental samples for potentially toxic species. Additionally, a specific assay for F. paulensis was developed as this species is of concern in New Zealand coastal waters. Using the assays we analyzed 31 samples from three locations around New Zealand and the Kingdom of Tonga. Fourteen samples in total were positive for Gambierdiscus/Fukuyoa and two samples were also positive using the F. paulensis assay. Samples from the Kermadec Islands were further characterized using high-throughput sequencing metabarcoding. The majority of reads corresponded to Gambierdiscus species with three species identified at all sites (G. australes, G. honu and G. polynesiensis). This is the first confirmed identification of G. polynesiensis, a known ciguatoxin producer, in New Zealand waters. Other known toxin-producing genera were also detected, included Alexandrium, Amphidinium, Azadinium, Dinophysis, Ostreopsis, and Prorocentrum.

KEYWORDS:

Kermadec Islands; Kingdom of Tonga; New Zealand; Quantitative PCR (QPCR); benthic dinoflagellates; high-throughput sequencing metabarcoding

PMID:
28767092
PMCID:
PMC5577598
DOI:
10.3390/md15080243
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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