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Nanomaterials (Basel). 2018 Oct 20;8(10). pii: E859. doi: 10.3390/nano8100859.

Ultrasonic Irradiation Coupled with Microwave Treatment for Eco-friendly Process of Isolating Bacterial Cellulose Nanocrystals.

Author information

1
University of Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa, Cilegon 42435, Banten, Indonesia. endarto.wardhono@untirta.ac.id.
2
University of Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa, Cilegon 42435, Banten, Indonesia. hadi.wahyudi@untirta.ac.id.
3
University of Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa, Cilegon 42435, Banten, Indonesia. sri.agustina@hotmail.com.
4
Physico-Chemical Analysis Services, University of Technology of Compiègne, Sorbonne Universities, 60200 Compiègne, France. francois.oudet@utc.fr.
5
Integrated Transformations of Renewable Matter Laboratory (EA TIMR 4297 UTC-ESCOM), University of Technology of Compiègne, Sorbonne Universities, 60200 Compiègne, France. mekro-permana.pinem@utc.fr.
6
Integrated Transformations of Renewable Matter Laboratory (EA TIMR 4297 UTC-ESCOM), University of Technology of Compiègne, Sorbonne Universities, 60200 Compiègne, France. daniele.clausse@utc.fr.
7
Integrated Transformations of Renewable Matter Laboratory (EA TIMR 4297 UTC-ESCOM), University of Technology of Compiègne, Sorbonne Universities, 60200 Compiègne, France. khashayar.saleh@utc.fr.
8
Integrated Transformations of Renewable Matter Laboratory (EA TIMR 4297 UTC-ESCOM), University of Technology of Compiègne, Sorbonne Universities, 60200 Compiègne, France. erwann.guenin@utc.fr.

Abstract

The isolation of crystalline regions from fibers cellulose via the hydrolysis route generally requires corrosive chemicals, high-energy demands, and long reaction times, resulting in high economic costs and environmental impact. From this basis, this work seeks to develop environment-friendly processes for the production of Bacterial Cellulose Nanocrystals (BC-NC). To overcome the aforementioned issues, this study proposes a fast, highly-efficient and eco-friendly method for the isolation of cellulose nanocrystals from Bacterial Cellulose, BC. A two-step processes is considered: (1) partial depolymerization of Bacterial Cellulose (DP-BC) under ultrasonic conditions; (2) extraction of crystalline regions (BC-NC) by treatment with diluted HCl catalyzed by metal chlorides (MnCl₂ and FeCl₃.6H₂O) under microwave irradiation. The effect of ultrasonic time and reactant and catalyst concentrations on the index crystallinity (CrI), chemical structure, thermal properties, and surface morphology of DP-BC and BC-NC were evaluated. The results indicated that the ultrasonic treatment induced depolymerization of BC characterized by an increase of the CrI. The microwave assisted by MnCl₂-catalyzed mild acid hydrolysis enhanced the removal of the amorphous regions, yielding BC-NC. A chemical structure analysis demonstrated that the chemical structures of DP-BC and BC-NC remained unchanged after the ultrasonic treatment and MnCl₂-catalyzed acid hydrolysis process.

KEYWORDS:

bacterial cellulose nanocrystals; catalyzed hydrolysis; crystallinity index; microwave treatment; ultrasonic irradiation

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