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Sensors (Basel). 2017 Oct 31;17(11). pii: E2502. doi: 10.3390/s17112502.

COALA: A Protocol for the Avoidance and Alleviation of Congestion in Wireless Sensor Networks.

Author information

1
Department of Electronic Engineering, Technological Educational Institute of Athens, 12243 Athens, Greece. dkandris@teiath.gr.
2
Department of Computer Systems Engineering, Piraeus University of Applied Sciences, 12241 Athens, Greece. gtselikis@puas.gr.
3
School of Engineering/Computer Science and Informatics, London South Bank University, London SE1 0AA, UK. e.anastasiadis@lsbu.ac.uk.
4
Department of Computer Science, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH, UK. e.panaousis@surrey.ac.uk.
5
School of Engineering/Computer Science and Informatics, London South Bank University, London SE1 0AA, UK. tdagiuklas@lsbu.ac.uk.

Abstract

The occurrence of congestion has an extremely deleterious impact on the performance of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). This article presents a novel protocol, named COALA (COngestion ALleviation and Avoidance), which aims to act both proactively, in order to avoid the creation of congestion in WSNs, and reactively, so as to mitigate the diffusion of upcoming congestion through alternative path routing. Its operation is based on the utilization of an accumulative cost function, which considers both static and dynamic metrics in order to send data through the paths that are less probable to be congested. COALA is validated through simulation tests, which exhibit its ability to achieve remarkable reduction of loss ratios, transmission delays and energy dissipation. Moreover, the appropriate adjustment of the weighting of the accumulative cost function enables the algorithm to adapt to the performance criteria of individual case scenarios.

KEYWORDS:

Wireless Sensor Networks; congestion avoidance; congestion control; energy efficiency; load balancing; routing protocol

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