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Nanomaterials (Basel). 2017 Nov 15;7(11). pii: E391. doi: 10.3390/nano7110391.

Synergistic Effect of Fluorinated and N Doped TiO₂ Nanoparticles Leading to Different Microstructure and Enhanced Photocatalytic Bacterial Inactivation.

Author information

1
Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, EPFL-STI-IMX-LTP, Station 12, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland. irena.markovic@epfl.ch.
2
Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, EPFL-STI-IMX-LTP, Station 12, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland. amarnath.jayaprakash@epfl.ch.
3
Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, EPFL-STI-IMX-LTP, Station 12, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland. brigitte.greenwood@gmail.com.
4
Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, EPFL-STI-IMX-LTP, Station 12, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland. b.a.vandriel@tudelft.nl.
5
Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, EPFL-STI-IMX-LTP, Station 12, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland. sami.rtimi@epfl.ch.
6
Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, EPFL-SB-ISIC-GPAO, Station 6, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland. sami.rtimi@epfl.ch.
7
Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, EPFL-STI-IMX-LTP, Station 12, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland. paul.bowen@epfl.ch.

Abstract

This work focuses on the development of a facile and scalable wet milling method followed by heat treatment to prepare fluorinated and/or N-doped TiO₂ nanopowders with improved photocatalytic properties under visible light. The structural and electronic properties of doped particles were investigated by various techniques. The successful doping of TiO₂ was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and the atoms appeared to be mainly located in interstitial positions for N whereas the fluorination is located at the TiO₂ surface. The formation of intragap states was found to be responsible for the band gap narrowing leading to the faster bacterial inactivation dynamics observed for the fluorinated and N doped TiO₂ particles compared to N-doped TiO₂. This was attributed to a synergistic effect. The results presented in this study confirmed the suitability of the preparation approach for the large-scale production of cost-efficient doped TiO₂ for effective bacterial inactivation.

KEYWORDS:

N doping; TiO2; disinfection; fluorination; heat treatment; synergy; wet milling

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