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Oncogene. 1999 Jan 21;18(3):573-82.

A rate limiting function of cdc25A for S phase entry inversely correlates with tyrosine dephosphorylation of Cdk2.

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Department of Tumor Cell Biology, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA.


The cdc25A phosphatase removes inhibitory phosphates from threonine-14 and tyrosine-15 of cyclin dependent kinase-2 (cdk2) in vitro, and it is therefore widely assumed that cdc25A positively regulates cyclin E- and A-associated cdk2 activity at the G1 to S phase transition of the mammalian cell division cycle. Human cdc25A was introduced into mouse NIH3T3 fibroblasts co-expressing a form of the colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) receptor that is partially defective in transducing mitogenic signals. Cdc25A enabled these cells to form colonies in semisolid medium containing serum plus human recombinant CSF-1 in a manner reminiscent of cells rescued by c-myc. However, cdc25A-rescued cells could not proliferate in chemically defined medium containing CSF-1 and continued to require c-myc function for S phase entry. When contact-inhibited cells overexpressing cdc25A were dispersed and stimulated to synchronously enter the cell division cycle, they entered S phase 2-3 h earlier than their parental untransfected counterparts. Shortening of G1 phase temporally correlated with more rapid degradation of the cdk inhibitor p27Kip1 and with premature activation of cyclin A-dependent cdk2. Paradoxically, tyrosine phosphorylation of cdk2 increased considerably as cells entered S phase, and cdc25A overexpression potentiated rather than diminished this effect. At face value, these results are inconsistent with the hypothesis that cdc25A acts directly on cdk2 to activate its S phase promoting function.

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