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Am J Clin Nutr. 1999 Feb;69(2):205-12.

The appetizing effect of an apéritif in overweight and normal-weight humans.

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Department of Human Biology, Maastricht University, Netherlands.



Epidemiologic studies have shown alcohol consumption to be inversely as well as positively related to body weight and body fat. Metabolic studies have shown an increase in energy intake as well as compensation after alcohol consumption.


Our objective was to assess the effects on energy intake of an apéritif compared with those of a water appetizer and 3 fruit juice appetizers.


Fifty-two men and women aged 20-45 y with a body mass index (in kg/m2) between 20 and 32 were randomly given 1 MJ (340 mL) alcohol (wine or beer), fat (cream fruit juice), protein (protein fruit juice), carbohydrate (grape juice), or water, or no preload 30 min before an ad libitum lunch consumed from the universal eating monitor.


Energy intake (3.5+/-0.3 MJ compared with 2.7+/-0.2 MJ, P < 0.001) and eating rate were higher (44+/-3 g/min compared with 38+/-3 g/min, P < 0.01), meal duration was longer (14 min compared with 12.0 min, P < 0.01), satiation started to increase later (3.5 min compared with 1.5 min, P < 0.01), and eating was prolonged after maximum satiation (2.5 min compared with 0.6 min, P < 0.01) after an apéritif than after a fat, protein, or carbohydrate appetizer,. Twenty-four-hour energy intake was higher on a day that an apéritif was consumed than after water or no preload.


Twenty-four-hour energy intake was elevated with a 1-MJ apéritif but not with a 1-MJ liquid carbohydrate, fat, or protein appetizer.

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