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J Am Coll Cardiol. 1999 Feb;33(2):403-11.

A prospective randomized trial of prevention measures in patients at high risk for contrast nephropathy: results of the P.R.I.N.C.E. Study. Prevention of Radiocontrast Induced Nephropathy Clinical Evaluation.

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William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, Michigan, USA.



This study was done to test the hypothesis that a forced diuresis with maintenance of intravascular volume after contrast exposure would reduce the rate of contrast-induced renal injury.


We have previously shown a graded relationship with the degree of postprocedure renal failure and the probability of in-hospital death in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. Earlier studies of singular prevention strategies (atrial natriuretic factor, loop diuretics, dopamine, mannitol) have shown no clear benefit across a spectrum of patients at risk.


A prospective, randomized, controlled, single-blind trial was conducted where 98 participants were randomized to forced diuresis with intravenous crystalloid, furosemide, mannitol (if pulmonary capillary wedge pressure <20 mm Hg), and low-dose dopamine (n = 43) versus intravenous crystalloid and matching placebos (n = 55).


The groups were similar with respect to baseline serum creatinine (2.44+/-0.80 and 2.55+/-0.91 mg/dl), age, weight, diabetic status, left ventricular function, degree of prehydration, contrast volume and ionicity, and extent of peripheral vascular disease. The forced diuresis resulted in higher urine flow rate (163.26+/-54.47 vs. 122.57+/-54.27 ml/h) over the 24 h after contrast exposure (p = 0.001). Two participants in the experimental arm versus five in the control arm required dialysis, with all seven cases having measured flow rates <145 ml/h in the 24 h after the procedure. The mean individual change in serum creatinine at 48 h, the primary end point, was 0.48+/-0.86 versus 0.51+/-0.87, in the experimental and control arms, respectively, p = 0.87. There were no differences in the rates of renal failure across six definitions of renal failure by intent-to-treat analysis. However, in all participants combined, the rise in serum creatinine was related to the degree of induced diuresis after controlling for baseline renal function, r = -0.36, p = 0.005. The rates of renal failure in those with urine flow rates greater than 150 ml/h in the postprocedure period were significantly lower, 8/37 (21.6%) versus 28/61 (45.9%), p = 0.03.


Forced diuresis with intravenous crystalloid, furosemide, and mannitol if hemodynamics permit, beginning at the start of angiography provides a modest benefit against contrast-induced nephropathy provided a high urine flow rate can be achieved.

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