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Chest. 1999 Jan;115(1):151-7.

Intrapulmonary cytokine accumulation following BAL and the role of endotoxin contamination.

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1
Department of Medicine, Kansas City Veterans Affairs Medical Center, MO 64128, USA.

Abstract

STUDY OBJECTIVES:

BAL induces alveolar inflammation, but its effects on intrapulmonary cytokines and the mechanisms causing inflammation are uncertain. The objectives of this study were: (1) to characterize cytokine response in the lungs to BAL, and (2) to determine whether endotoxin is introduced into the lungs during BAL, which could promote BAL-induced inflammation.

DESIGN AND METHODS:

We performed two BAL procedures in healthy volunteers separated by 4 (n=6), 24 (n=5), or 72 h (n=3). The initial BAL was performed in the right middle lobe (RML) and the second BAL was performed in the same location and the lingula. Concentrations of interleukin-8 (IL-8), interleukin-1 (IL-1beta), and transforming growth factor-beta were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) bioactivity was determined. Endotoxin contents of saline (10 and 20 mL) infused through bronchoscopes as well as BAL fluids recovered from six subjects were assessed by limulus amebocyte assay.

RESULTS:

At 4 h after the initial lavage, but not at later times, BAL fluid recovered from the RML contained increased concentrations of IL-8 and IL-1beta, and increased TNF-alpha bioactivity. BAL fluid recovered from the lingula contained increased concentrations of TNF-alpha only at 4 h. All BAL samples tested contained detectable endotoxin as did all saline aliquots instilled through bronchoscopes.

CONCLUSIONS:

There is intrapulmonary accumulation of the cytokines TNF-alpha, IL-8, and IL-1beta in the lavaged lung within 4 h after BAL; this accumulation resolves by 24 h. Endotoxin contamination of the lungs during bronchoscopy may contribute to BAL-induced lung inflammation.

PMID:
9925077
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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