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Physiol Rev. 1999 Jan;79(1):73-98.

New perspectives on mechanisms involved in generating epithelial cell polarity.

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Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Beckman Center for Molecular and Genetic Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, USA.


Polarized epithelial cells form barriers that separate biological compartments and regulate homeostasis by controlling ion and solute transport between those compartments. Receptors, ion transporters and channels, signal transduction proteins, and cytoskeletal proteins are organized into functionally and structurally distinct domains of the cell surface, termed apical and basolateral, that face these different compartments. This review is about mechanisms involved in the establishment and maintenance of cell polarity. Previous reports and reviews have adopted a Golgi-centric view of how epithelial cell polarity is established, in which the sorting of apical and basolateral membrane proteins in the Golgi complex is a specialized process in polarized cells, and the generation of cell surface polarity is a direct consequence of this process. Here, we argue that events at the cell surface are fundamental to the generation of cell polarity. We propose that the establishment of structural asymmetry in the plasma membrane is the first, critical event, and subsequently, this asymmetry is reinforced and maintained by delivery of proteins that were constitutively sorted in the Golgi. We propose a hierarchy of stages for establishing cell polarity.

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