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Laryngoscope. 1999 Jan;109(1):8-14.

Effect of internal maxillary arterial occlusion on nasal blood flow in swine.

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Department of Surgery, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.



The precise effects of therapeutic occlusion of the internal maxillary artery (IMA) on distal nasal mucosal perfusion are unknown. A better understanding of these effects has important implications regarding the rationale and expected efficacy of certain therapeutic interventions for epistaxis management. The authors developed an animal model to assess these issues.


The effects of "proximal" and progressively more "distal" occlusions of the IMA on nasal mucosal blood flow (NBF) were assessed in anesthetized swine using continuous laser Doppler flowmetry. The levels of arterial occlusion were selected to simulate clinical therapeutic occlusions used for the management of epistaxis.


Nineteen swine were entered into one of four experimental groupings: proximal IMA occlusion using platinum micro-coils (n = 6), mid-grade distal IMA occlusion with polyvinyl alcohol particulate (PVA) suspensions (300 to 500 microns, n = 5), high-grade distal IMA occlusion with polyvinyl alcohol particulate suspensions (50 to 150 microns, n = 5), and sham control (n = 2).


All embolizations resulted in acute decreases in average NBF from 120 mL/min per 100 g to 40 mL/min per 100 g (P < .05 for all groups). NBF returned to baseline in all three treated groups within 2 to 8 days after therapeutic embolization, depending on the level of occlusion (coils, 2 d; mid-grade PVA, 2-3 d; high-grade PVA, 8 d). Follow-up angiography showed recanalization and collateralization as possible methods of reestablishing NBF.


This study supports the rationale for performing distal IMA occlusion with transarterial particulate embolization, in order to provide a longer period of time of diminished NBF. This theoretically should promote hemostasis within an injured portion of the nasal mucosa by decreasing perfusion pressure within the capillary bed. However, the benefits of distal IMA embolization must be balanced against potential ischemic complications, as may be more commonly seen with high-grade particulate embolization.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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