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J Biol Chem. 1999 Jan 29;274(5):2601-4.

Site-selected mutagenesis of a conserved nucleotide binding HXGH motif located in the ATP sulfurylase domain of human bifunctional 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate synthase.

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  • 1Section on Steroid Regulation, Endocrinology and Reproduction Research Branch, NICHD, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-4510, USA.


3'-Phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) synthase is a bifunctional protein consisting of an NH2-terminal APS kinase and a COOH-terminal ATP sulfurylase. Both catalytic activities require ATP; the APS kinase domain involves cleavage of the beta-gamma phosphodiester bond of ATP, whereas the ATP sulfurylase domain involves cleavage of the alpha-beta phosphodiester bond of ATP. Previous mutational studies have suggested that beta-gamma phosphodiesterase activity involves a highly conserved NTP-binding P-loop motif located in the adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate kinase domain of PAPS synthases. Sequence alignment analysis of PAPS synthases and the superfamily of TagD-related nucleotidylyltransferases revealed the presence of a highly conserved HXGH motif in the ATP sulfurylase domain of PAPS synthases, a motif implicated in the alpha-beta phosphodiesterase activity of cytidylyltransferases. Thus, site-selected mutagenesis of the HXGH motif in the ATP sulfurylase domain of human PAPS synthase (amino acids 425-428) was performed to examine this possibility. Either H425A or H428A mutation produced an inactive enzyme. In contrast, a N426K mutation resulted in increased enzymatic activity. A G427A single mutant resulted in only a modest 30% reduction in catalytic activity, whereas a G427A/H428A double mutant produced an inactive enzyme. These results suggest an important role for the HXGH histidines in the ATP sulfurylase activity of bifunctional PAPS synthase and support the hypothesis that the highly conserved HXGH motif found in the ATP sulfurylase domain of PAPS synthases is involved in ATP binding and alpha-beta phosphodiesterase activity.

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