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Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1998 Dec;8(6):715-20.

Evolution of the diverse antifreeze proteins.

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Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Illinois, 407 S. Goodwin, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA.


Different types of ice-growth-inhibiting antifreeze proteins, first recognized in fish, have now been isolated from insects and plants, and the list continues to expand. Their structures are amazingly diverse; how they attain the same function are subjects of intense research. Evolutionary precursors of several members have been identified - divergent proteins of apparently unrelated function. The hybridization of information from structural and molecular evolution studies of these molecules provides a forum in which issues of selection, gene genealogy, adaptive evolution, and invention of a novel function can be coherently addressed.

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