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Adv Vet Med. 1999;41:463-80.

Swinepox virus as a vaccine vector for swine pathogens.

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Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, University of Illinois, Urbana 61802, USA.


Several small and large viruses (e.g., adenovirus, poxvirus, and herpesviruses) have been investigated as vaccine vectors. Each viral system has its advantages and disadvantages. One major advantage for viral vector vaccines is their ability to elicit a protective cell-mediated immunity as well as a humoral response to the antigen delivered by the vector. One major problem to using recombinant viruses as vaccines is the pathogenic potential of the parent virus. Therefore, it is important that along with the optimal expression of the foreign genes and ability to provide protection, the pathogenicity of the vector virus must be reduced during genetic manipulation without affecting its multiplication. The requirements to develop a viral vector, for example, swinepox virus, are a cell culture system that will support the growth of the virus, a suitable nonessential region(s) in the virus genome for insertion of foreign DNA so that virus replication is not affected, a foreign gene(s) that encodes for an immunogenic protein of a swine pathogen, strong transcriptional regulatory elements (promoters) necessary for optimal expression of the foreign genes, a procedure for delivering the foreign gene(s) into the nonessential locus, and a convenient method of distinguishing the recombinant viruses from the parent wild-type virus. Using this methodology, recombinant swinepox virus vaccines expressing pseudorabies virus antigens have been developed and shown to provide protection against challenge. These studies and evidence of local infection of the oral tract by swinepox virus indicate its potential as a recombinant vector for providing immunity against various swine pathogens including those that infect the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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