Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
J Biol Chem. 1999 Jan 15;274(3):1415-22.

Endothelial cells express a novel, tumor necrosis factor-alpha-regulated variant of HOXA9.

Author information

  • 1Department of Cell Biology, Lerner Research Institute of The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio 44195, USA.


The expression of the class 1 homeobox (HOX) family of "master control" transcription factors has been studied principally in embryogenesis and neoplasia in which HOX genes play a critical role in cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation. We wished to test whether HOX family members were also involved in a differentiation-like process occurring in normal, diploid adult cells, that is, cytokine-induced activation of endothelial cells (EC). Screening of a human EC cDNA library yielded several members of the A and B groups of HOX transcription factors. One clone represented a novel, alternatively spliced variant of the human HOXA9 gene containing a new exon and the expression of which was driven by a novel promoter. This variant termed HOXA9EC appeared restricted to cells of endothelial lineage, i.e. expressed by human EC from multiple sources, but not by fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells, or several transformed cell lines. HOXA9EC mRNA was rapidly down-regulated in EC in response to tumor necrosis factor-alpha due to an apparent reduction in transcriptional rate. Reporter construct studies showed that the 400 base pairs of genomic DNA directly 5' to the transcription initiation site of HOXA9EC contained the information required for both up-regulation in response to cotransfection with a HOXA9EC expression vector and tumor necrosis factor-alpha-dependent down-regulation of this gene. These results provide evidence of a novel HOX family member that may participate in either the suppression or the genesis of EC activation.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for HighWire
    Loading ...
    Support Center