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Brain Res. 1999 Jan 23;816(2):431-7.

Neurotoxicity of FIV and FIV envelope protein in feline cortical cultures.

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1
Curriculum in Neurobiology and Department of Neurology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA.

Abstract

The neurotoxic effects of the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and FIV envelope proteins were measured in primary cultures of feline cortical neurons. Envelope protein from the FIV-PPR strain promoted neuronal swelling and death, whereas envelope protein from the FIV-34TF10 isolate produced intermediate or negligible toxicity. No effect was observed in control cultures treated with envelope protein from the Epstein-Barr virus. A concentration-effect curve showed that FIV-PPR protein produced maximal toxicity at 200 pM protein and decreased toxicity at higher concentrations, which is consistent with previous reports of the HIV-1 surface glycoprotein, gp120. These effects required the presence of low concentrations of glutamate. Using the natural host cells as targets, the effects of envelope protein and infectious virions were directly compared. All of the toxic activity could be attributed to non-infectious interactions between the viral envelope and target cells. Addition of 1 microM tetrodotoxin failed to block the effects of FIV-PPR in the presence of 20 microM glutamate. Toxicity would appear to involve two steps in which the envelope protein first sensitizes neurons through non-synaptic interactions (TTX insensitive) thereby setting the stage for enhanced synaptic activation via glutamate receptors (TTX sensitive).

PMID:
9878865
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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