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J Surg Res. 1998 Dec;80(2):243-51.

The effector component of the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response has a biphasic pattern after burn injury.

Author information

1
Department of Surgery, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

Burn injury delays allograft rejection and impairs the host defense against infection. These functions are mediated via the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response. The CTL response is divided into antigen recognition/processing and effector phases. Presensitization allows selective analysis of changes, induced by burn injury, in the effector limb of the CTL response in relation to time and burn size.

METHODS:

Anesthetized CBA mice were primed with either a flank allograft from C57BL/6 (B6) mice or an autograft (negative control). Five weeks after grafting, animals were anesthetized and received either a 0, 20, or 40% burn. Spleens were harvested 3, 7, 10, and 14 days after burn injury (n = 96), cocultured with B6 stimulator splenocytes, and assessed for CTL response to radiolabeled allogeneic targets in a 51Cr release assay. In experiment 2, spleens were harvested from unburned and 40% burned animals on Postburn Days 3 and 14. After triple staining, cells were analyzed by flow cytometry for CD4, CD8, and CD25 antigens. In experiment 3, splenocytes from 0 and 40% burned animals on Postburn Days 3 and 14, were cocultured with B6 stimulators for 5 days. Supernatants were evaluated for interleukin (IL)-2, IL-5, and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) using ELISA:

RESULTS:

The CTL response for 20 and 40% burned animals decreased 3 days postburn (-11.9 and -30.1%, P < 0.05), returned to baseline in 7-10 days, and was increased by 14 days postburn (15.8 and 22.6%, P < 0.05). The T-helper lymphocyte population (CD4) from 40% burn animals was significantly decreased on Postburn Days 3 and 14 (10.12 +/- 0.45% vs 11.78 +/- 0.29% and 10.19 +/- 0.24% vs 14.21 +/- 0.97%, respectively, P < 0.05). The CTL effector (CD8) splenocyte population was significantly higher in the burned animals on Postburn Day 14 (4.55% vs 3.71%, P < 0.05). On Postburn Day 3, average IL-5 production was higher in the burned animals (1.80 pg/ml vs 0.59 pg/ml, respectively, P < 0.05). The burn group, on Postburn Days 3 and 14, showed a decrease in mean IL-2 production (212.81 pg/ml vs 263.6 pg/ml and 342.7 pg/ml vs 421.4 pg/ml, respectively, P < 0.05). Mean IFN-gamma production on Postburn Days 3 and 14 was decreased in burned mice (263.75 pg/ml vs 285.57 pg/ml and 218.16 pg/ml vs 263.42 pg/ml, P < 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS:

Burn injury impairs the effector limb of the CTL response as a function of burn size in the immediate postburn period. CTL activity returns to baseline within 7-10 days postburn and has a rebound increase by Day 14. Early CTL suppression, after burn injury, may be due to a decrease in the T-helper subpopulation. The late increase in cytotoxicity may be secondary to an increase in the effector CTL population in the late postburn period. Burn injury causes a T-helper-2 phenotype as demonstrated by depressed IL-2 and IFN-gamma production and increased IL-5 production.

PMID:
9878320
DOI:
10.1006/jsre.1998.5488
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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