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Ann Thorac Surg. 1998 Nov;66(5):1551-9.

Surgical repair of the congenitally malformed mitral valve in infants and children.

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The Children's Memorial Hospital, and Department of Surgery, Northwestern University Medical School, Chicago, Illinois 60614, USA.



Mitral valve remodeling techniques were applied to 26 infants and children (mean age, 6.0 years, range, 0.4 to 15.9 years) with various forms of congenital mitral valve disease over a 7-year period. Patients with atrioventricular canal, L-transposition and single ventricle were excluded. Intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) was utilized to assess the repair and guide the need for immediate intervention.


Twenty-one patients had mitral regurgitation: 10 with cleft anterior mitral leaflet, 7 with annular dilatation, 1 with normal leaflets with an obstructing cord, 2 with prolapsed leaflets and elongated cords, and 1 with restricted leaflet motion, normal papillary muscles, and shortened cords. Of the 5 mitral stenosis patients, 3 had supravalvular mitral ring, 1 had midvalvular mitral ring, and 1 had a parachute valve. Three of the mitral stenosis patients had additional stenotic lesions. Concurrent repair of associated lesions was performed in 21 patients (78%).


Operative mortality was 3.8% (n = 1). There were no late deaths. Immediate rerepair in 4 patients resulted in improved function. All mitral stenosis patients improved. A total of 20 mitral regurgitation patients (95%) improved; 1 required mitral valve replacement. Mean follow-up is 31 months (range, 2 to 81 months). All patients are in New York Heart Association functional class I or II.


Mitral valve repair can be successfully performed in infants and children with excellent short- and midterm results. Assessment using transesophageal echocardiography can guide the necessity for immediate rerepair to achieve improved function.

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