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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999 Jan 5;96(1):38-43.

Mutagenesis of conserved lysine residues in bacteriophage T5 5'-3' exonuclease suggests separate mechanisms of endo-and exonucleolytic cleavage.

Author information

1
Division of Molecular and Genetic Medicine, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2JF, United Kingdom.

Abstract

Efficient cellular DNA replication requires the activity of a 5'-3' exonuclease. These enzymes are able to hydrolyze DNA.DNA and RNA.DNA substrates exonucleolytically, and they are structure-specific endonucleases. The 5'-3' exonucleases are conserved in organisms as diverse as bacteriophage and mammals. Crystal structures of three representative enzymes identify two divalent-metal-binding sites typically separated by 8-10 A. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to investigate the roles of three lysine residues (K83, K196, and K215) situated near two metal-binding sites in bacteriophage T5 5'-3' exonuclease. Neither K196 nor K215 was essential for either the exo- or the endonuclease activity, but mutation of these residues increased the dissociation constant for the substrate from 5 nM to 200 nM (K196A) and 50 nM (K215A). Biochemical analysis demonstrated that K83 is absolutely required for exonucleolytic activity on single-stranded DNA but is not required for endonucleolytic cleavage of flap structures. Structural analysis of this mutant by x-ray crystallography showed no significant perturbations around the metal-binding sites in the active site. The wild-type protein has different pH optima for endonuclease and exonuclease activities. Taken together, these results suggest that different mechanisms for endo- and exonucleolytic hydrolysis are used by this multifunctional enzyme.

PMID:
9874768
PMCID:
PMC15089
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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