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Srp Arh Celok Lek. 1998 Sep-Oct;126(9-10):321-6.

[Sodium excretion in children with lithogenic disorders].

[Article in Serbian]

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  • 1University Children's Hospital, Belgrade.



The causes of nephrolithisis are multifactorial and have not yet been enough investigated [1]. Hypercalciuria is the most common cause of metabolic nephrolithiasis [2-4]. Close relationship between urinary calcium and urinary sodium has been a subject of reported observations in the past, showing that high urinary sodium is associated with high urinary calcium [5-7]. Hyperoxaluria, hyperuricosuria and cystinuria are also metabolic disorders that can lead to nephrolithiasis. Recent studies have indicated that urinary elimination of cystine is influenced by urinary sodium excretion. Based on these observations it has been hypothesised that patients with high urinary sodium excretion are at high risk of urinary stone disease. The purpose of the study was to investigate sodium excretion in a 24-hour urine and first morning urine collected from children with lithogenic metabolic abnormalities (hypercalciuria, hyperoxaluria, hyperuricosuria, cystinuria), both with nephrolithiasis and without it, in order to determine its significance in urinary calculi formation.


Urinary sodium excretion was investigated in 2 groups of children: patients with lithogenic metabolic abnormalities, but without urinary stone disease (L group) and patients with nephrolithiasis (C group). Both groups were divided into 2 subgroups: patients with hypercalciuria and without it. There were 22 patients in group L (mean age 11.97 +/- 4.13 years), of whom 17 formed a hypercalciuric subgroup and 5 formed a non-hypercalciuric subgroup (3 patients with hyperuricosuria and 2 patients with hyperoxaluria). Group C consisted of 21 patients with nephrolithiasis (mean age 12.67 +/- 3.44 years), of whom 6 formed a hypercalciuric subgroup and 15 formed a non-hypercalciuric group (2 patients with cystinuria and 13 patients without lithogenic metabolic abnormalities). Control group consisted of 42 healthy age-matched children. All subjects had a normal renal function. A detailed history and clinical examination were done, and ultrasonography was performed in all patients. A 24-hour urine, first morning urine and serum specimen were analysed for sodium, potassium, calcium, uric acid, urea and creatinine. Fractional excretion of sodium, as well as urinary sodium to creatinin ratio and urinary sodium to potassium ratio, were calculated from the findings. Sodium and potassium levels were determined by flame photometry, calcium was measured by atomic absorption technique (Beckman Atomic Spectrophotometer, Synchron CX-5 model, USA), uric acid by carbonate method and creatinine by Jaffe technique. Cystine and dibasic amino acids were quantified by ion chromatography. Urinary oxalate excretion was determined by enzyme spectrophotometry. Hypercalciuria was defined by 24-hour calcium excretion greater than 3.5 mg/kg per day and/or calcium to creatinine ratio greater than 0.20 [8]. Uric acid excretion was expressed as uric acid excretion factored for glomerular filtration, according to Stapleton's and Nash's formula [9]. Normal values were lower than 0.57 mg/dl of glomerular filtration rate in 24-hour samples. Mean values were statistically analyzed by Pearson's linear correlation and analysis of variance (ANOVA).


Urinary sodium concentration values including urinary sodium to potassium ratios, are shown in Table 1. We found that urinary sodium excretion was significantly increased in patients of both L and C groups when compared with controls (p < 0.05). Further analysis of the subgroups showed that urinary sodium excretion was significantly higher only in patients with hypercalciuria of both L and C groups in comparison to controls (p < 0.05) (Table 2). A significant positive correlation was found between 24-hour urinary sodium to creatinine ratio and urinary calcium to creatinine ratio (r = 0.31; p < 0.001) (Graph 1), as well as between urinary sodium to potassium ratio in 24-hour and first morning urine (r = 0.69; p < 0.001) (Graph 2). (A

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