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Lloydia. 1976 Mar-Jun;39(2-3):150-7.

Toxic metabolites of Amanita pantherina, A. cothurnata, A. muscaria and other Amanita species.


Forty-seven specimens representing 35 species or varieties of Amanita were examined for the presence of ibotenic acid, muscimol, stizolobic acid, stizolobinic acid, aminohexadienoic acid and chlorocrotylglycine. In addition, crude extracts of A. muscaria were examined chromatographically for the presence of methyltetrahydrocarboline carboxylic acid (MTC). Ibotenic acid and muscimol were found in clearly detectable concentrations in extracts of A. cothurnata, all specimens of A. muscaria, all specimens of A. pantherina and in lower concentrations in A. gemmata. Stizolobic acid and stizobinic acid were found in detectable concentrations in one variety of A. muscaria, in all specimens of A. pantherina and in trace levels after additional purification of the extracts in A. gemmata and in the remaining specimens of A. muscaria. Aminohexadienoic acid and chlorocrotylglycine were detected only in crude extracts of A. smithiana. MTC could not be detected in crude extracts of A. muscaria. Crystalline ibotenic acid (820 mg) was isolated from 17 kg of a specimen of A. pantherina collected in western Washington State.

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