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EMBO J. 1998 Dec 15;17(24):7416-29.

Crm1p mediates regulated nuclear export of a yeast AP-1-like transcription factor.

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W.M.Keck Institute for Cellular Visualization, Rosenstiel Center and Department of Biology, MS 029, Brandeis University, 415 South Street, Waltham, MA 02453, USA.


The yeast AP-1-like transcription factor, Yap1p, activates genes required for the response to oxidative stress. Yap1p is normally cytoplasmic and inactive, but will activate by nuclear translocation if cells are placed in an oxidative environment. Here we show that Yap1p is a target of the beta-karyopherin-like nuclear exporter, Crm1p. Yap1p is constitutively nuclear in a crm1 mutant, and Crm1p binds to a nuclear export sequence (NES)-like sequence in Yap1p in the presence of RanGTP. Recognition of Yap1p by Crm1p is inhibited by oxidation, and this inhibition requires at least one of the three cysteine residues flanking the NES. These results suggest that Yap1p localization is largely regulated at the level of nuclear export, and that the oxidation state affects the accessibility of the Yap1p NES to Crm1p directly. We also show that a mutation in RanGAP (rna1-1) is synthetically lethal with crm1 mutants. Yap1p export is inhibited in both rna1-1 and prp20 (RanGNRF) mutant strains, but Yap1p rapidly accumulates at the nuclear periphery after shifting rna1-1, but not other mutant cells to the non-permissive temperature. Thus, disassembly of export complexes in response to RanGTP hydrolysis may be required for release of substrate from a terminal binding site at the nuclear pore complex (NPC).

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