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Hum Genet. 1998 Oct;103(4):441-9.

Pigmentary mosaicism in hypomelanosis of Ito. Further evidence for functional disomy of Xp.

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Department of Clinical Genetics, Medical Center of Human Genetics, Philipps University Marburg, Germany.


We report on a female with mental and motor retardation, facial dysmorphism, abnormal pigmentation reminiscent to hypomelanosis of Ito (HI), and karyotypic mosaicism involving a small supernumerary marker chromosome. The marker chromosome was defined by fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) as a ring X chromosome with breakpoints in the juxtacentromeric region. FISH analysis showed that the ring does not include the XIST locus at the X-inactivation centre and, therefore, may not be subject to X inactivation. X-inactivation studies with the HUMARA (human androgen receptor) and FMR1 assay showed a skewed X-inactivation pattern (85:15) with preferential inactivation of the paternal X chromosome. These results are discussed with respect to the role of functional disomy of Xp in the pathogenesis of HI.

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