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Neuron. 1998 Nov;21(5):1123-8.

Coordinated interactions between hippocampal ripples and cortical spindles during slow-wave sleep.

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Center for Learning and Memory, Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge 02139, USA.


Sleep is characterized by a structured combination of neuronal oscillations. In the hippocampus, slow-wave sleep (SWS) is marked by high-frequency network oscillations (approximately 200 Hz "ripples"), whereas neocortical SWS activity is organized into low-frequency delta (1-4 Hz) and spindle (7-14 Hz) oscillations. While these types of hippocampal and cortical oscillations have been studied extensively in isolation, the relationships between them remain unknown. Here, we demonstrate the existence of temporal correlations between hippocampal ripples and cortical spindles that are also reflected in the correlated activity of single neurons within these brain structures. Spindle-ripple episodes may thus constitute an important mechanism of cortico-hippocampal communication during sleep. This coactivation of hippocampal and neocortical pathways may be important for the process of memory consolidation, during which memories are gradually translated from short-term hippocampal to longer-term neocortical stores.

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