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Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 1998 Nov;38(8):639-74.

Lipid modification strategies in the production of nutritionally functional fats and oils.

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1
Department of Food Science, University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada.

Abstract

Rapid improvements in the understanding of the nutritional requirements of both infants and adults has led to new developments in the modification of fats and oils. Specific targets include the improvement in growth and development of infants, treatment of disease in adults, and disease prevention. Efforts have been focussed on the production of structured lipids using medium-chain acids and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), as well as the concentration of long-chain PUFAs from new and existing sources. Short- and medium-chain fatty acids are metabolized differently than long-chain fatty acids and have been used as a source of rapid energy for preterm infants and patients with fat malabsorption-related diseases. Long-chain PUFAs, specifically docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid, are important both in the growth and development of infants, while n-3 PUFAs have been associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease in adults. Based on the requirements for individual fat components by different segments of the population, including infants, adults, and patients, ideal fats can be formulated to meet their needs. By using specific novel fat sources and lipid modification techniques, the concentrations of medium-chain, long-chain saturated, and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids as well as cholesterol can be varied to meet the individual needs of each of these groups. While genetic modification of oilseeds and other novel sources of specific lipid components are still being developed, chemical and lipase-catalyzed interesterification reactions have moved to the forefront of lipid modification technology. Fractionation of fats and oils to provide fractions with different nutritional properties has potential, but little work has been performed on the nutritional applications of this method. The choice of suitable lipid modification technologies will depend on the target lipid structure, production costs, and consumer demand. A combination of some or all of the present lipid modification techniques may be required for this purpose.

PMID:
9850461
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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