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Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1998 Nov;17(11):980-5.

Safety, tolerability and immunogenicity of concomitant injections in separate locations of M-M-R II, VARIVAX and TETRAMUNE in healthy children vs. concomitant injections of M-M-R II and TETRAMUNE followed six weeks later by VARIVAX.

Author information

1
Kaiser Permanente Vaccine Study Center, Oakland, CA 94115, USA. henry.shinefield@ncal.kaiperm.org

Abstract

OBJECTIVES AND STUDY DESIGN:

The primary objectives of this study were to compare immunologic responses, antibody persistence, safety and varicella breakthrough rates when VARIVAX (varicella vaccine) is given at the same time as M-M-R II (measles, mumps, rubella vaccine) and TETRAMUNE (conjugate Haemophilus influenzae type b, diphtheria, tetanus and whole cell pertussis vaccine) at separate injection sites (Group A) vs. VARIVAX given 6 weeks after M-M-R II and TETRAMUNE (Group B). Six hundred nine healthy children, 12 to 23 months of age, were randomized to one of two treatment (immunization) groups (Group A and Group B). Blood for antibody titers was drawn on the day of immunization, 6 weeks after each injection and 1 year later. Local and systemic adverse reactions were recorded. Exposure and cases of varicella were documented through a 1-year follow-up period.

RESULTS:

Measles, mumps and rubella seroconversion rates and geometric mean titers (GMTs) were similar for both treatment groups. Varicella seroconversion rates were also similar between groups. However, varicella GMTs and percent with a varicella-protective level [> or =5.0 glycoprotein (gp) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) units] did not meet the prespecified criteria for similarity were lower for Group A (GMT 10.5; 82.8% > or =5.0 gp ELISA units) than for Group B (GMT 14.5; 91.2% > or =5.0 gp ELISA units). The GMTs between groups for other antibodies were similar. At the 1-year follow-up antibody titers were comparable in both groups and breakthrough varicella cases appeared generally similar. There were fewer local adverse events (AEs) at the VARIVAX injection sites (9.8% and 2.9%, Group A and B, respectively) than at the TETRAMUNE sites (27.9% and 24.0%). Systemic AEs were not statistically different when M-M-R II was administered alone (8.6%) or concomitantly with VARIVAX (8.9%). When VARIVAX was given alone AEs were 1.8%. The rate of fever > or =102 degrees F after M-M-R II and TETRAMUNE administered together was 10.7% on Days 0 to 3 and 23.7% on Days 7 to 21. When VARIVAX was administered alone, the rate of fever was 5.4% on Days 0 to 3 (P = 0.018) and 10.8% on Days 7 to 21 (P<0.001).

CONCLUSION:

Because the varicella titers were comparable and varicella breakthrough rates generally similar at 1 year in both groups, we expect that the concomitant administration of VARIVAX with M-M-R II and TETRAMUNE has clinical effectiveness similar to that with VARIVAX 6 weeks after the administration of these other two vaccines. VARIVAX appears to be less reactogenic than M-M-R II and TETRAMUNE.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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