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Nature. 1998 Nov 26;396(6709):377-80.

Interdomain communication regulating ligand binding by PPAR-gamma.

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Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia 19104, USA.


Binding to receptors in the cell nucleus is crucial for the action of lipophilic hormones and ligands. PPAR-gamma (for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor) is a nuclear hormone receptor that mediates adipocyte differentiation and modulates insulin sensitivity, cell proliferation and inflammatory processes. PPAR-gamma ligands have been implicated in the development of atherogenic foam cells and as potential cancer treatments. Transcriptional activity of PPAR-gamma is induced by binding diverse ligands, including natural fatty acid derivatives, antidiabetic thiazolidinediones, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Ligand binding by PPAR-gamma, as well as by the entire nuclear-receptor superfamily, is an independent property of the carboxy-terminal ligand-binding domain (LBD) of the receptor. Here we show that ligand binding by PPAR-gamma is regulated by intramolecular communication between its amino-terminal A/B domain and its carboxy-terminal LBD. Modification of the A/B domain, for example by physiological phosphorylation by MAP kinase, reduces ligand-binding affinity, thus negatively regulating the transcriptional and biological functions of PPAR-gamma. The ability of the A/B domain to regulate ligand binding has important implications for the evaluation and mechanism of action of potentially therapeutic ligands that bind PPAR-gamma and that are likely to extend to other members of the nuclear-receptor superfamily.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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