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Eur J Immunol. 1998 Nov;28(11):3587-93.

Differential requirements for CD28 and CD40 ligand in the induction of experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis.

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Division of Neurology, Karolinska Institute, Huddinge University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.


The interactions of CD28-B7 and CD40-CD40 ligand (CD40L) pathways in T cell costimulation and autoimmune disease are incompletely understood. We sought to address this issue by investigation of the genesis of acetylcholine receptor (AChR)-induced antibody-mediated experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG) in CD28- and CD40L-deficient mice (CD28-/-, CD40L-/-). Compared to wild-type mice, the CD28-/- mice became less susceptible, and CD40L-/- mice were completely resistant to EAMG induction. Analysis of T helper functions, reflected by cytokine responses, revealed a switch to a Th1 profile in CD28-/- mice. Consistently, levels of serum AChR-specific antibodies of the IgG1 isotype were decreased in CD28-/- mice. In the CD40L-/- mice, both Th1 and Th2 cytokine responses were diminished, and T cell-dependent AChR-reactive B cell responses were more severely impaired than in the CD28-/- mice. Thus, CD28 and CD40L are differentially required for induction of EAMG.

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