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World J Surg. 1998 Dec;22(12):1256-8.

Looking back to the advent of modern endoscopy: 150th birthday of Maximilian Nitze.

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Department of Surgery, University of Adelaide, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Woodville, Australia.


This year, 1998, marks the 150th anniversary of the birthday of Maximilian Nitze (1848-1906), a German scientist responsible for the initiation of modern endoscopy: He integrated two of his ideas in the construction of the first functional cystoscope. Nitze realized that the field of view during endoscopy could be enlarged by the use of an optical system, and that the light source should be placed on the tip of the instrument. He presented this cystoscope on October 2, 1877 for the first time, at age 28 years.

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