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Toxicon. 1998 Dec;36(12):1801-6.

Citrate inhibition of snake venom proteases.

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Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater 74078, USA.


Thirty snake venoms had a citrate content of 2.3 to 12.9%, dry basis, by an aconitase isocitric dehydrogenase coupled enzyme assay. This is a venom concentration range of approximately 30 to 150 mM citrate assuming 25% venom solids content. Inhibition of snake venom protease activity by the addition of exogenous citrate was obtained using azure blue hide powder and azocasein as substrates. Protease inhibitions of 7.5% for Crotalus atrox venom to 78% for Bothrops picadoi venom were observed with citrate. Complete inhibition of snake venom protease activity by citrate was not observed. Bothrops asper (Pacifico) venom showed a 41% protease inhibition by citrate with azocasein as the substrate and 46% inhibition of Bothrops asper (Alantico) venom protease with azure blue hide power as a substrate. Trypsin was not inhibited in this system. Citrate may inhibit some venom protease activity by forming a complex with the zinc of zinc-dependent enzymes. reserved.

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