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Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 1998 Dec;31(6):979-1012.

Surgical management of the hypopharyngeal airway in sleep disordered breathing.

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Stanford Sleep Disorders Clinic, Center of Excellence, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, USA.


The etiology of sleep disordered breathing is collapse or obstruction of the upper airway during sleep. This obstruction may be localized to one or two areas or may encompass the entire upper airway passages to include the nasal cavity, nasopharynx, oropharynx, hypopharynx, and larynx. The presurgical evaluation, which includes polysomnography, a comprehensive head and neck physical examination, fiberoptic nasopharyngoscopy, and lateral cephalometric analysis is essential in directing surgical therapy in a site specific approach. The surgical procedures available to address hypopharyngeal and base of the tongue collapse include inferior sagittal mandibular osteotomy and gengioglossus advancement, hyoid myotomy and suspension, laser midline glossectomy, lingualplasty, partial glossectomy, and maxillomandibular advancement surgery. The Riley-Powell-Stanford Surgical Protocol has proven to be an effective and safe method for controlling upper airway collapse in sleep disordered breathing.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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