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Am J Hum Genet. 1998 Dec;63(6):1631-40.

Mutation analysis of the RSK2 gene in Coffin-Lowry patients: extensive allelic heterogeneity and a high rate of de novo mutations.

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Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire, CNRS, INSERM, Strasbourg.


Coffin-Lowry syndrome (CLS) is an X-linked disorder characterized by severe psychomotor retardation, facial and digital dysmorphisms, and progressive skeletal deformations. By using a positional cloning approach, we have recently shown that mutations in the gene coding for the RSK2 serine-threonine protein kinase are responsible for this syndrome. To facilitate mutational analysis, we have now determined the genomic structure of the human RSK2 gene. The open reading frame of the RSK2 coding region is split into 22 exons. Primers were designed for PCR amplification of single exons from genomic DNA and subsequent single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis. We screened 37 patients with clinical features suggestive of CLS. Twenty-five nucleotide changes predicted to be disease-causing mutations were identified, including eight splice-site alterations, seven nonsense mutations, five frameshift mutations, and five missense mutations. Twenty-three of them were novel mutations. Coupled with previously reported mutations, these findings bring the total of different RSK2 mutations to 34. These are distributed throughout the RSK2 gene, with no clustering, and all but two, which have been found in two independent patients, are unique. A very high (68%) rate of de novo mutations was observed. It is noteworthy also that three mutations were found in female probands, with no affected male relatives, ascertained through learning disability and mild but suggestive facial and digital dysmorphisms. No obvious correlation was observed between the position or type of the RSK2 mutations and the severity or particular clinical features of CLS.

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