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Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1998 Dec;42(12):3187-92.

Serum and cerebrospinal fluid pharmacokinetics of intravenous and oral lamivudine in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children.

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Pediatric Branch and Biostatistics and Data Management Section, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.


We studied the pharmacokinetics of intravenously and orally administered lamivudine at six dose levels ranging from 0.5 to 10 mg/kg of body weight in 52 children with human immunodeficiency virus infection. A two-compartment model with first-order elimination from the central compartment was simultaneously fitted to the serum drug concentration-time data obtained after intravenous and oral administration. The maximal concentration at the end of the 1-h intravenous infusion and the area under the concentration-time curve after oral and intravenous administration increased proportionally with the dose. The mean clearance of lamivudine (+/- standard deviation) in the children was 0.53 +/- 0.19 liter/kg/h (229 +/- 77 ml/min/m2 of body surface area), and the mean half-lives at the distribution and elimination phases were 0.23 +/- 0.18 and 2.2 +/- 2.1 h, respectively. Clearance was age dependent when normalized to body weight but age independent when normalized to body surface area. Lamivudine was rapidly absorbed after oral administration, and 66% +/- 25% of the oral dose was absorbed. Serum lamivudine concentrations were maintained above 1 microM for >/=8 h of 24 h on the twice daily oral dosing schedule with doses of >/=2 mg/kg. The cerebrospinal fluid drug concentration measured 2 to 4 h after the dose was 12% (range, 0 to 46%) of the simultaneously measured serum drug concentration. A limited-sampling strategy was developed to estimate the area under the concentration-time curve for concentrations in serum at 2 and 6 h.

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