Send to

Choose Destination
Med Clin (Barc). 1998 Oct 10;111(11):410-6.

[Population reference values of the Spanish version of the Health Questionnaire SF-36].

[Article in Spanish]

Author information

Unidad de Investigación en Servicios Sanitarios, Instituto Municipal de Investigación Médica (IMIM), Barcelona.



Perceived health status measurements reference values an important information source for health services research. Population-based norms have been proposed to increase their interpretability. In this paper, we have obtained the norms of the Spanish version of the SF-36 Health Survey and have compared them with US norms the questionnaire.


Data were obtained in the home interview survey on drug consumption (February 1996). This is a cross-sectional study of a multi-stage, stratified random sample of non-institutionalized individuals 15 and older residents in Spain. The final sample included 9,984 individuals, but the analysis is based on those individuals 18 or older (n = 9,151). Personal home interviews were carried out. Information included: the SF-36, legal and illegal drugs consumption, and socio-demographic data, among others. Central trend and dispersion statistics were estimated for each of the SF-36 dimension scores according to gender and age group. Cronbach's alpha coefficients were calculated to estimate the reliability of scores.


For most SF-36 dimensions, scores were higher (better) among men and among younger age groups (p < 0.01). There was a monotonic score gradient by age which was more intense for physical function and bodily pain. All Cronbach's alpha coefficients were higher than 0.7 (ranging from 0.78 to 0.96). Spanish norms were very similar to those obtained in the US.


Results presented should be considered the population-based norms of the Spanish version of the SF-36 Health Survey and may be useful for interpreting the questionnaire scores. These norms, which are very similar to the original US questionnaire both in absolute values and in the gender and age group distribution patterns, should be carefully used. Considerations for use discussed in the paper should be taken into account.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Ediciones Doyma, S.L.
Loading ...
Support Center