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J Formos Med Assoc. 1998 Oct;97(10):661-6.

Antimicrobial susceptibility testing for Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates resistant to extended-spectrum beta-lactam antibiotics.

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1
Department of Laboratory Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Abstract

Detection of Klebsiella pneumoniae strains with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-related resistance phenotypes is becoming important in clinical microbiology laboratories. In this study, we investigated the usefulness of three screening methods, the Etest ESBL screen, the double-disk synergy test, and the ceftazidime disk test, for identifying ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae strains. The agar dilution method was used as the standard. We also determined the in vitro activity of several new antimicrobial agents against these organisms. Strains that exhibited an increase in the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) to the third-generation cephalosporins or aztreonam of 2 micrograms/mL or more, but were susceptible to the three cephamycins tested, were considered to have ESBL-related resistance phenotypes. The frequency of ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae isolates (according to the disk-diffusion method) has increased markedly in recent years, from 3.4% in 1993 to 10.3% in 1997. A total of 93 preserved isolates of K. pneumoniae collected from December 1995 through March 1997 were found to be resistant to at least one of the third-generation cephalosporins (cefotaxime and ceftazidime) or aztreonam using the routine disk diffusion method. Among these isolates, 35 were classified as having an ESBL phenotype using the agar dilution method. The remaining 58 isolates were classified as cephamycin resistant, which indicated resistance to both cephamycins and third-generation cephalosporins or aztreonam. The susceptibility rates of the ESBL-producing isolates were 11% for cefotaxime, 14% for ceftazidime, and 6% for aztreonam. The susceptibility rates of these 35 isolates to imipenem, ciprofloxacin, and ofloxacin were 100%, 80%, and 86%, respectively. Both the MIC50 and MIC90 of meropenem were 0.06 microgram/mL, while the MIC50 and MIC90 of BAY 12-8039 were 0.125 and 2 micrograms/mL, respectively. Thirty-two (91%) of the 35 isolates of K. pneumoniae with the ESBL-related resistance phenotype were detected by the Etest ESBL screen, while the ceftazidime disk screen test detected 77% of these isolates, and the double-disk synergy test detected 74%. The Etest ESBL screen appears to be an acceptable, convenient, and sensitive method for the detection of ESBL-producing isolates in the clinical microbiology laboratory.

PMID:
9830274
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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