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Clin Cancer Res. 1998 Nov;4(11):2577-83.

Loss of heterozygosity and mutational analysis of the PTEN/MMAC1 gene in synchronous endometrial and ovarian carcinomas.

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Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hamon Center for Therapeutic Oncology Research, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas 75235-9032, USA.


Mutations of the human putative protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTEN/MMAC1) gene at chromosome 10q23 have been found frequently in type I endometrial carcinomas. Endometrioid adenocarcinoma is the most frequent histology seen in patients with clinically determined synchronous endometrial and ovarian carcinomas. We report a high incidence of PTEN/MMAC1 mutations and 10q23 loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in patients with synchronous endometrial and ovarian carcinomas. Paraffin-embedded precision microdissected tumors were analyzed for 10 matched synchronous endometrial and ovarian cancers and 11 matched control metastatic endometrial cancers. Single-stranded conformation polymorphism analysis was used to screen for mutations in all tumors and corresponding normal lymphocyte DNA. LOH was determined using a panel of four microsatellite markers within the PTEN/MMAC1 locus. PTEN/MMAC1 mutations were found in 43% (9 of 21) of the endometrial cancers studied, similarly represented in the clinically synchronous group (5 of 10 or 50%) and the advanced metastatic group (4 of 11; 36%; P = 0.53). In two of the five cases of clinically synchronous cancers, identical or progressive PTEN mutations were found in both the endometrial and ovarian cancers, suggesting that the ovarian tumor is a metastasis from the endometrial primary. PTEN/MMAC1 mutations in the advanced endometrial cancers were similar in the corresponding metastases. In one case, the mutation was seen in only one of two metastatic lymph nodes. The LOH analysis demonstrated 55% LOH in at least one PTEN/MMAC1 marker. These findings suggest that the putative tumor suppressor gene PTEN/MMAC1 may be a viable molecular marker to differentiate synchronous versus metastatic disease in a subset of clinically synchronous endometrial and ovarian carcinomas.

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