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Clin Psychol Rev. 1998 Nov;18(7):821-38.

Individual cognitive-behavior therapy in the treatment of hallucinations and delusions: a review.

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  • 1Department of Clinical Psychology, Tameside General Hospital, Ashton-Under-Lyne, United Kingdom.


The limitations of biochemical treatments in reducing the severity of hallucinations and delusions has led to an increased interest in the investigation of psychological treatments for these symptoms. These investigations have spanned the last 4 decades and have covered a range of psychological approaches from psychoanalytically oriented psychotherapy to behavioral approaches. More recently, findings that some psychotherapies are not effective treatments for psychosis and that cognitive-behavior therapy can be an effective treatment for neurotic disorders have led to increasing interest in the investigation of the effectiveness of cognitive-behavior therapy for psychosis. This review describes and evaluates the research on the cognitive-behavioral treatment of hallucinations and delusions and describes the cognitive models from which the treatments have developed. The conclusion is that, on the whole, the literature provides fairly strong evidence for the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral approaches in the management of chronic psychotic disorders and associated symptoms, although there are a number of areas where further development is necessary.

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