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J Urol. 1998 Dec;160(6 Pt 1):2121-5.

Repeat screening for prostate cancer after 1-year followup in 984 biopsied men: clinical and pathological features of detected cancer.

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Department of Urology, Erasmus University and Academic Hospital, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.



We describe the yield of a repeat examination and biopsy procedure 1 year after initial biopsy was negative. We also assessed the parameters responsible for the failure to diagnose these cancers at the primary screening.


We screened 8,103 men randomized to the screening arm of the Rotterdam section of the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer using prostate specific antigen measurement, digital rectal examination and transrectal ultrasound. At the primary screening biopsy of 1,875 men was positive for prostate cancer in 374. Of the remaining 1,501 men 984 underwent repeat screening.


Biopsy at repeat screening diagnosed prostate cancer in 49 of 442 men (11%), a rate significantly lower than the 19.9% true positive biopsy rate at the primary screening. Pathological characteristics of the tumors diagnosed were not significantly different in the 2 groups. However, prostate volume in men diagnosed with prostate cancer was significantly greater at repeat versus primary screening (mean 42.6 versus 34.9 cc, p = 0.003). The clinical characteristics were more favorable because of an increased proportion of stage T1C tumors. Prostate volume in men with stage T1C cancer was significantly greater than in those with palpable or visible tumors in whom prostate specific antigen values were in the same range.


The most important factor responsible for the failure to diagnose these cancers at the primary screening was significantly greater prostate volume. Tumor characteristics were not significantly different in the groups. If prostate cancer screening were to become a routine health care policy, efforts would have to be made to improve the chances of diagnosing prostate cancer in larger prostates by repeat biopsy or by increasing the number of cores obtained.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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