Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
J Urol. 1998 Dec;160(6 Pt 1):2058-62.

Percutaneous testicular sperm aspiration: a convenient and effective office procedure to retrieve sperm for in vitro fertilization with intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

Author information

  • 1Department of Surgery, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Kentucky, USA.



After intracytoplasmic sperm injection was established to facilitate in vitro fertilization in men with the most severe semen abnormalities, the use of testicular sperm to achieve conception became feasible. We investigated the use of a method of percutaneous needle aspiration previously used for diagnostic purposes to obtain testicular sperm for intracytoplasmic sperm injection.


A method of percutaneous aspiration of sperm was developed to facilitate intracytoplasmic sperm injection. A total of 69 testicular aspirations were performed for diagnostic purposes and 179 to obtain sperm on the day of egg retrieval for couples undergoing in vitro fertilization with intracytoplasmic sperm injection. The procedures were performed in an outpatient facility. Most patients received intravenous sedation and a few received only local anesthesia.


Sperm adequate for intracytoplasmic sperm injection were obtained in all men with obstructive azoospermia, including those with significant testicular atrophy and those with anejaculation or necrospermia. Adequate numbers of sperm for intracytoplasmic sperm injection were retrieved less reliably in men with nonobstructive azoospermia. The number of sperm correlated positively with testicular size. Morbidity and discomfort were nonexistent. Sperm were obtained from 43 of 69 men undergoing diagnostic and 170 of 179 men undergoing therapeutic aspiration. Sperm motility ranged from 0 to 20% and viability from 55 to 85%.


Percutaneous testicular sperm aspiration is a cost-effective method to retrieve sperm for intracytoplasmic sperm injection in select men with obstructive azoospermia, anejaculation and necrospermia, and some with nonobstructive azoospermia.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Loading ...
    Support Center