Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
J Biol Chem. 1998 Nov 20;273(47):31327-36.

Growth hormone stimulates phosphorylation and activation of elk-1 and expression of c-fos, egr-1, and junB through activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2.

Author information

Program in Cellular and Molecular Biology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-0622, USA.


Growth hormone (GH), a major regulator of normal body growth and metabolism, regulates cellular gene expression. The transcription factors Elk-1 and Serum Response Factor are necessary for GH-stimulated transcription of c-fos through the Serum Response Element (SRE). GH stimulates the serine phosphorylation of Elk-1, thereby enabling Elk-1 to mediate transcriptional activation. The contribution of the Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway to Elk-1-mediated transcriptional activation of the c-fos SRE in response to GH was examined. The MEK inhibitor PD098059 attenuated GH-induced expression of the endogenous SRE-regulated genes c-fos, egr-1, and junB as well as transcriptional activation mediated by the c-fos promoter. The MEK inhibitor blocked GH-stimulated activation of MEK, phosphorylation of ERK1/ERK2, and MAP kinase activity in 3T3-F442A cells. Blocking MEK activation prevented GH-induced phosphorylation of Elk-1, as well as the ability of Elk-1 to mediate transcriptional activation in response to GH. Overexpression of dominant-negative Ras or the ERK-specific phosphatase, mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1, blocked the Ras/MEK/ERK pathway and abrogated GH-induced phosphorylation of Elk-1. GH failed to stimulate phosphorylation or activation of Jun N-terminal kinase under the conditions used. GH slightly increased p38-mediated mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein (MAPKAP) kinase-2 activity, but the p38 inhibitor SB203580 did not attenuate GH-promoted Elk-1 phosphorylation. Wortmannin, which inhibited GH-induced ERK phosphorylation, also attenuated transcriptional activation of c-fos by GH. Taken together, these data suggest that GH-dependent activation of the Ras/MEK/ERK pathway and subsequent serine phosphorylation of Elk-1 contribute to GH-stimulated c-fos expression through the SRE.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text

Publication types, MeSH terms, Substances, Grant support

Publication types

MeSH terms


Grant support

PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for HighWire
    Loading ...
    Support Center