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Plant Cell. 1998 Nov;10(11):1875-88.

The Tangled1 gene is required for spatial control of cytoskeletal arrays associated with cell division during maize leaf development.

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  • 1Plant Cell Biology Group, Research School of Biological Sciences, Australian National University, GPO Box 475, ACT 2601, Canberra, Australia.


The cytoskeleton plays a major role in the spatial regulation of plant cell division and morphogenesis. Arrays of microtubules and actin filaments present in the cell cortex during prophase mark sites to which phragmoplasts and associated cell plates are guided during cytokinesis. During interphase, cortical microtubules are believed to influence the orientation of cell expansion by guiding the pattern in which cell wall material is laid down. Little is known about the mechanisms that regulate these cytoskeleton-dependent processes critical for plant development. Previous work showed that the Tangled1 (Tan1) gene of maize is required for spatial regulation of cytokinesis during maize leaf development but not for leaf morphogenesis. Here, we examine the cytoskeletal arrays associated with cell division and morphogenesis during the development of tan1 and wild-type leaves. Our analysis leads to the conclusion that Tan1 is required both for the positioning of cytoskeletal arrays that establish planes of cell division during prophase and for spatial guidance of expanding phragmoplasts toward preestablished cortical division sites during cytokinesis. Observations on the organization of interphase cortical microtubules suggest that regional influences may play a role in coordinating cell expansion patterns among groups of cells during leaf morphogenesis.

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