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J Virol. 1998 Dec;72(12):9597-611.

Diverse host responses and outcomes following simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmac239 infection in sooty mangabeys and rhesus macaques.

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Divisions of Immunology, New England Regional Primate Research Center, Harvard Medical School, Southborough, Massachusetts, USA.


Sooty mangabeys naturally infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) do not develop immunodeficiency despite the presence of viral loads of 10(5) to 10(7) RNA copies/ml. To investigate the basis of apathogenic SIV infection in sooty mangabeys, three sooty mangabeys and three rhesus macaques were inoculated intravenously with SIVmac239 and evaluated longitudinally for 1 year. SIVmac239 infection of sooty mangabeys resulted in 2- to 4-log-lower viral loads than in macaques and did not reproduce the high viral loads observed in natural SIVsmm infection. During acute SIV infection, polyclonal cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) activity coincident with decline in peak plasma viremia was observed in both macaques and mangabeys; 8 to 20 weeks later, CTL activity declined in the macaques but was sustained and broadly directed in the mangabeys. Neutralizing antibodies to SIVmac239 were detected in the macaques but not the mangabeys. Differences in expression of CD38 on CD8(+) T lymphocytes or in the percentage of naive phenotype T cells expressing CD45RA and CD62L-selection did not correlate with development of AIDS in rhesus macaques. In macaques, the proportion of CD4(+) T lymphocytes expressing CD25 declined during SIV infection, while in mangabeys, CD25-expressing CD4(+) T lymphocytes increased. Longitudinal evaluation of cytokine secretion by flow cytometric analysis of unstimulated lymphocytes revealed elevation of interleukin-2 and gamma interferon in a macaque and only interleukin-10 in a concurrently infected mangabey during acute SIV infection. Differences in host responses following experimental SIVmac239 infection may be associated with the divergent outcome in sooty mangabeys and rhesus macaques.

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