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J Pharm Sci. 1998 Nov;87(11):1322-30.

Role of P-glycoprotein and cytochrome P450 3A in limiting oral absorption of peptides and peptidomimetics.

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AvMax Inc., 890 Heinz Avenue, Berkeley, California, 94710 and Department of Biopharmaceutical Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143-0446, USA.


Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), the major phase I drug metabolizing enzyme in humans, and the MDR1 gene product P-glycoprotein (P-gp) are present at high concentrations in villus tip enterocytes of the small intestine and share a significant overlap in substrate specificity. A large body of research both in vitro and in vivo has established metabolism by intestinal CYP3A4 as a major determinant of the systemic bioavailability of orally administered drugs. More recently it has been recognized that drug extrusion by intestinal P-gp can both reduce drug absorption and modulate the effects of inhibitors and inducers of CYP3A-mediated metabolism. There is relatively little data regarding the effects of CYP3A and P-gp on peptide drugs; however, studies with the cyclic peptide immunosuppresant cyclosporine as well as peptidomimetics such as the HIV-protease inhibitor saquinavir (Invirase) and a new cysteine protease inhibitor K02 (Morpholine-Urea-Phe-Hphe-Vinyl sulfone; Axys Pharmaceuticals) provide some insight into the impact of these systems on the oral absorption of peptides.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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