Send to

Choose Destination
J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 1998 Nov;28(5):307-22.

Patellofemoral disorders: a classification system and clinical guidelines for nonoperative rehabilitation.

Author information

HealthSouth Rehabilitation and Sports Medicine, Birmingham, AL 35205, USA.


Patellofemoral disorders are among the most common clinical conditions managed in the orthopaedic and sports medicine setting. Nonoperative intervention is typically the initial form of treatment for patellofemoral disorders; however, there is no consensus on the most effective method of treatment. Although numerous treatment options exist for patellofemoral patients, the indications and contraindications of each approach have not been well established. Additionally, there is no generally accepted classification scheme for patellofemoral disorders. In this paper, we will discuss a classification system to be used as the foundation for developing treatment strategies and interventions in the nonsurgical management of patients with patellofemoral pain and/or dysfunction. The classification system divides the patellofemoral disorders into eight groups, including: 1) patellar compression syndromes, 2) patellar instability, 3) biomechanical dysfunction, 4) direct patellar trauma, 5) soft tissue lesions, 6) overuse syndromes, 7) osteochondritis diseases, and 8) neurologic disorders. Treatment suggestions for each of the eight patellofemoral dysfunction categories will be briefly discussed.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Atypon
Loading ...
Support Center