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Lancet. 1998 Oct 31;352(9138):1433-7.

Positron emission tomographic evidence of toxic effect of MDMA ("Ecstasy") on brain serotonin neurons in human beings.

Author information

1
Biological Psychiatry Branch, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

(+/-)3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "Ecstasy") is a popular recreational drug that selectively damages brain serotonin (5-HT) neurons in animals at doses that closely approach those used by humans. We investigated the status of brain 5-HT neurons in MDMA users.

METHODS:

We enrolled 14 previous users of MDMA who were currently abstaining from use and 15 controls who had never used MDMA. We used positron emission tomography (PET) with the radioligand carbon-11-labelled McN-5652, which selectively labels the 5-HT transporter. We analysed whether there were differences in 5-HT transporter binding between abstinent MDMA users and participants in the control group. Blood and urine samples were taken and tested to check for abstinence.

FINDINGS:

MDMA users showed decreased global and regional brain 5-HT transporter binding compared with controls. Decreases in 5-HT transporter binding positively correlated with the extent of previous MDMA use.

INTERPRETATION:

Quantitative PET studies with a ligand selective for 5-HT transporters can be used to assess the status of 5-HT neurons in the living human brain. We show direct evidence of a decrease in a structural component of brain 5-HT neurons in human MDMA users.

PMID:
9807990
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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